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« Balkans - the World's Tinder Box | Main | FEDERAL IT SECURITY - MR. GREGORY C. WILSHUSEN »
Monday
Feb182008

The Chinese SAM Network 

From: IMINT & Analisys

INTRODUCTION

During the 1990s, the Chinese military finally began to give proper attention to developing an adequate air defense network capable of providing a credible defense of key areas. Thanks to the import of advanced SAM systems from Russia, as well as the rapid progress made in the development and fielding of indigenous SAM systems, the Chinese air defense network entered the 21st Century as a credible and potent facet of the Chinese military machine.

SAM SYSTEMS

The Chinese air defense network relies primarily on Soviet and Russian imported systems, as well as reverse-engineered and indigenous systems. The following SAM systems are currently in service as part of the fixed air defense network: HQ-2 (CSA-1 GUIDELINE), HQ-9, KS-1A, FM-90, S-300PMU (SA-10B GRUMBLE), and S-300PMU-1 (SA-20A GARGOYLE). These sites are supported by 36D6 (TIN SHIELD) and 64N6 (BIG BIRD) EW radar systems.

Currently, there are 65 active SAM sites which have been identified inside of China. The following image depicts the locations of these sites. HQ-2 sites are red, HQ-9 sites are green, KS-1A sites are yellow, FM-90 sites are blue, S-300PMU sites are purple, and S-300PMU-1 sites are orange. Empty sites are denoted by white icons. EW sites, of which there are 12, are blue.


The following image depicts the overall SAM coverage provided by Chinese air defense sites. Following the color scheme identified above, HQ-2 range rings are dark red, HQ-9 rings are green, KS-1A rings are yellow, FM-90 rings are blue, S-300PMU rings are purple, and S-300PMU-1 rings are orange. EW radar range rings are blue.


HQ-2

There are currently 47 active HQ-2 sites at the following coordinates:

43 57' 56.48" N 87 26' 04.35" E
43 56' 56.92" N 87 40' 25.23" E
43 46' 05.28" N 87 28' 24.39" E
41 05' 15.95" N 100 31' 13.54" E
41 05' 04.24" N 100 31' 10.77" E
38 29' 25.41" N 105 59' 57.04" E
38 29' 20.77" N 105 59' 47.49" E
40 39' 19.23" N 109 36' 43.02" E
40 39' 28.36" N 110 03' 41.50" E
40 42' 18.63" N 114 57' 11.74" E
40 51' 25.09" N 115 51' 25.09" E
40 21' 12.52" N 115 52' 58.29" E
40 39' 52.53" N 115 02' 44.28" E
39 58' 49.55" N 115 42' 41.87" E
40 18' 11.86" N 115 38' 22.04" E
40 13' 16.97" N 115 24' 56.77" E
40 27' 32.15" N 116 01' 11.44" E
40 21' 33.06" N 116 21' 08.72" E
40 12' 36.39" N 116 51' 02.93" E
40 57' 16.65" N 117 57' 18.72" E
39 07' 56.67" N 117 37' 31.02" E
38 51' 41.70" N 117 26' 09.17" E
38 46' 59.13" N 117 00' 18.79" E
42 04' 19.37" N 121 44' 02.18" E
39 00' 25.39" N 121 37' 43.17" E
37 46' 13.80" N 120 47' 42.16" E
36 32' 03.30" N 104 08' 54.96" E
34 26' 50.92" N 107 21' 28.94" E
34 39' 27.90" N 108 58' 08.92" E
30 59' 49.15" N 103 45' 30.21" E
30 13' 01.52" N 103 30' 21.10" E
30 52' 13.84" N 114 26' 22.44" E
30 19' 25.46" N 114 12' 53.40" E
32 27' 14.41" N 118 49' 31.58" E
32 17' 54.73" N 119 11' 36.01" E
31 36' 14.45" N 118 59' 57.68" E
31 14' 32.63" N 121 44' 29.17" E
30 52' 57.09" N 121 52' 19.96" E
25 35' 33.94" N 119 26' 57.85" E
24 40' 09.12" N 118 16' 51.74" E
24 34' 06.07" N 117 39' 37.66" E
24 30' 04.50" N 117 52' 35.91" E
23 30' 44.34" N 113 16' 37.04" E
23 09' 41.30" N 113 23' 32.51" E
23 09' 05.76" N 113 23' 56.26" E
23 08' 33.07" N 113 03' 18.99" E
21 23' 24.91" N 110 11' 22.25" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's HQ-2 systems:


HQ-9

There are currently three active HQ-9 sites at the following coordinates:

41 04' 38.63" N 100 31' 18.03" E
34 37' 14.21" N 108 42' 23.62" E
40 21' 20.79" N 116 41' 01.81" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's HQ-9 systems:


KS-1A

There are currently two active KS-1A sites at the following coordinates:

23 27' 13.40" N 116 43' 08.78" E
24 54' 51.79" N 102 33' 47.22" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's KS-1A systems:


FM-90

There is currently one active FM-90 site at the following coordinates:

39 59' 51.16" N 117 03' 41.29" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's FM-90 systems:


S-300PMU

There are currently four active S-300PMU sites at the following coordinates:

39 22' 44.83" N 116 07' 52.16" E
39 54' 35.31" N 117 43' 05.32" E
28 45' 43.43" N 115 50' 29.83" E
28 45' 06.19" N 115 50' 27.32" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's S-300PMU systems:


S-300PMU-1

There are currently eight active S-300PMU-1 sites at the following coordinates:

39 33' 46.38" N 116 24' 53.92" E
39 34' 36.23" N 116 45' 38.76" E
31 49' 24.13" N 121 51' 00.74" E
31 29' 24.62" N 121 16' 43.06" E
30 52' 53.43" N 121 52' 16.39" E
30 50' 17.44" N 121 33' 41.51" E
25 34' 34.83" N 119 27' 15.47" E
25 01' 59.85" N 118 48' 26.28" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's S-300PMU-1 systems:


EW SITES

There are currently 12 active 36D6 and 64N6 EW radar sites at the following coordinates:

36D6 39 22' 43.26" N 116 07' 45.25" E
36D6 39 34' 30.54" N 116 45' 36.03" E
36D6 39 54' 40.50" N 117 42' 59.92" E
36D6 31 49' 27.83" N 121 50' 57.51" E
36D6 31 29' 20.32" N 121 16' 45.34" E
36D6 30 52' 48.49" N 121 52' 14.60" E
36D6 30 50' 21.37" N 121 33' 45.26" E
36D6 25 34' 29.47" N 119 27' 17.96" E
36D6 25 01' 56.02" N 118 48' 26.63" E
36D6 28 45' 00.62" N 115 50' 26.92" E
64N6 39 33' 58.53" N 116 24' 19.77" E
64N6 31 17' 24.08" N 121 41' 11.47" E

The following image depicts the coverage provided by China's EW radar systems:


EMPTY SITES

There are currently 19 unoccupied, prepared SAM and EW radar sites inside of China. These sites have been identified as to their projected occupant based on their configurations.

China's empty SAM and EW radar sites are located at the following coordinates:

HQ-2 41 38' 51.28" N 86 20' 57.95" E
HQ-2 40 14' 05.32" N 97 11' 45.09" E
HQ-2 40 13' 06.48" N 97 12' 09.83" E
HQ-2 36 49' 11.60" N 100 45' 47.72" E
HQ-2 36 48' 54.95" N 100 45' 53.60" E
HQ-2 35 53' 56.62" N 103 16' 31.59" E
HQ-2 34 44' 25.71" N 108 03' 23.04" E
HQ-2 28 20' 34.38" N 116 14' 29.46" E
HQ-2 21 23' 07.25" N 110 11' 31.92" E
HQ-6 30 30' 09.47" N 104 18' 13.51" E
HQ-9 36 32' 14.19" N 104 08' 34.30" E
S-300P 39 48' 24.03" N 117 02' 41.85" E
S-300P 40 06' 55.22" N 116 59' 21.36" E
S-300P 39 00' 18.45" N 121 24' 00.40" E
S-300P 38 47' 07.00" N 121 09' 36.08" E
S-300P 37 45' 44.44" N 120 43' 09.59" E
S-300P 36 21' 30.04" N 120 15' 02.68" E
S-300P 24 40' 06.99" N 118 16' 58.96" E
64N6 39 00' 57.26" N 121 24' 08.86" E

These empty SAM sites can perform multiple tasks within the overall air defense network. They can be employed as dispersal sites for existing air defense assets, complicating enemy targeting, a task which can be especially effective when highly mobile SAM systems are employed. Empty, unoccupied sites can also be used to deploy additional SAM systems currently held in storage if more air defense assets are deemed necessary in a given sector. Many of these sites, particularly those associated with newer systems such as the HQ-9 and the S-300P family, may have already been constructed in anticipation of the delivery of the systems to occupy them.

An overview of unoccupied Chinese SAM sites is provided in the following image:


THE AIR DEFENSE NETWORK

Point Defense

The current structure of the Chinese air defense system lends itself to point defense rather than true national defense. Over 70% of the deployed SAM systems are relatively short-ranged HQ-2 variants, capable of engaging a single target per battery to a range of 35 kilometers. There are large areas of the nation which remain undefended by any strategic SAM assets, although in truth many of these areas, particularly those in Western China, are largely uninhabited, or are simply not under any projected threat due to geographical constraints and political realities.

National S-300 Coverage

In an effort to enhance the capability of the air defense networks, S-300PMU systems were ordered from Russia in 1991. These systems were delivered in 1993 and placed on combat duty around Beijing. S-300PMU-1 systems were ordered in 1994, with deliveries being complete in 2004. The latest acquisition has been S-300PMU-2 (SA-20B GARGOYLE) systems. Separate orders were placed in 2004 and 2006 for the S-300PMU-2; according to the US DoD, deliveries should begin to take place within the next few years. S-300PMU-1 systems were initially positioned to defend Beijing and Shanghai, with further deployments along the Formosa Strait. The addition of S-300PMU-1 systems around Beijing likely allowed for some S-300PMU batteries to be redeployed around Nanchang.

 

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